Types of Electric Motors

electric motors

To make your job easier, electric motors use a series of electrical currents. These currents are usually sinusoidally distributed around the periphery of the rotor. When they interact, they produce a counterclockwise torque on the rotor that accelerates it and rotates the mechanical load. As the rotor’s speed increases relative to the rotating field, the induced voltage decreases and the torque and current decrease proportionally.

Induction motors

Induction motors are a type of asynchronous electric motor. Their name derives from their squirrel cage rotor, which is made of a highly conductive metal like aluminum or copper. The magnetic field produced by alternating current acts on the rotor to create torque. Induction motors are used in a wide variety of applications, including electric motors for electric vehicles, generators, and industrial machines.

A synchronous AC motor generates a magnetic field that rotates in synchronism with the oscillations in an AC supply. An induction motor’s rotor rotates at a slower rate than its stator’s magnetic field. Because the rotor rotates at a slower rate than the stator, the magnetic field changes in relation to the rotor. A synchronous motor’s rotor reaches the synchronous speed when there is no load on it, but as the load increases, the rotor’s speed slows down.

Synchronous single phase motors

A synchronous single phase electric motor is composed of two identical rotors connected rigidly together. The rotors rotate in opposite directions¬†nutone blowers due to the opposing magnetic field and moments. When they are connected in series, the magnetic field direction coincides with the rotor’s rotation and the two phases are considered a single unit. The resulting mechanical output power is the product of the torque and the rotor’s speed.

An SPPS Written-Pole(r) single-phase motor features a concentrated excitation winding located between the main stator windings. This winding was positioned to produce a powerful magnetic field that helped maintain the proper pole geometry in the rotor. The energy required to drive this winding was magnetically coupled from an adjacent stator core, thereby eliminating the need for an external source of energy.

Stepper motors

Inductors in stepper motors provide the necessary torque to move objects. A rotor has electromagnet teeth mounted on it, and these electromagnets are sequentially polarized and depolarized. This causes the rotor to rotate one step at a time. As a result, stepper motors are perfect for low-speed synchronous motions with loads directly coupled to the shaft.

To start a stepper motor, the current is supplied to the coil, which must reach its full rated current in every step. This constant current level is maintained through the counter-EMF resistance of the moving rotor. As the speed increases, the time the coil spends at full current decreases. Eventually, the current cannot reach the rated value, and the stepper motor will stop producing torque.

Servo motors

The simplest of these servomotors uses position-only sensing via a potentiometer. This type of servo is often used in radio-controlled models. Servos have a control wire that does not carry much current. If you want to use this type of servo, however, you should add a resistor between pin 3 of the timer and the servo. This will ensure the correct operation of the timer and reduce the current through the wire in case of a short circuit.

Typical servo motors are able to deliver up to 5-10 times the rated torque in short periods of time. They are also suitable for use in telescopes, antennas, and woodturning mechanisms. For example, they can be used to shape table legs and stair spindles, drill holes for assembly, and drive tools. These motors are also widely used in textiles. Servo motors can control spinning and weaving machines, knitting and weaving machines, and looms.